This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Vernonia amygdalina extract on Pb-induced kidney toxicity in Wistar rats. This investigation was carried out using 25 Wistar rat of both sexes, and the animals were divided into five groups: 5 rats per group. Group A served as the negative control group and was orally gavaged with 5mg/kg body weight of normal saline daily. Group B served as the positive control and was treated with daily intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 8 mg/kg body weight of Pb acetate (Pb). Group C was treated with daily intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 8 mg/kg body weight of Pb along with 20 mg/kg body weight of Vernonia amygdalina extract orally. Group D was treated with daily intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 8 mg/kg body weight of Pb along with 40 mg/kg body weight of Vernonia amygdalina extract orally. Group 5 was treated with daily intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 8 mg/kg body weight of Pb along with 60 mg/kg body weight of Vernonia amygdalina extract orally. All treatments were done for a period of 28 days. The animals were sacrificed on the 29th day by cervical dislocation, then blood was collected by cardiac puncture, and kidneys were collected for histological profile. Lipid peroxidation (MDA), creatinine and urea level were all determined. There was marked elevation in MDA level with a concomitant depletion in urea and creatinine content in the group treated with only Pb when compared with the negative control group. There was a significant increase in proximal tubular area, distal tubular area, glomerular membrane thickness, area, perimeter and feret’s diameter and a significant decrease in proximal tubule, distal tubule ratio and cellularity in this group of rats when compared to the negative control. Oxidation and histological changes in the kidneys were successfully prevented by the pre- administration of Vernonia amygdalina as evidenced by creatinine and urea and MDA level. These were made evident as the morphological scores across all experimental groups were significantly different from those of the positive control (group 2). Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that Vernonia amygdalina successfully minimizes the deleterious effects in kidney function and histological coherence associated with nephrotoxicity by strengthening the antioxidant defense system, suppressing oxidative stress, and mitigating apoptosis.
Rats kidney morphological particularities and functions post-treatment with vernonia amygdalina extract and low-dose lead acetate
Gabryel G. Akunna1, L.C. Saalu1, A. Irozuoke2, E. Joshua1
1 Department of Anatomy, Benue State University, Markurdi, Nigeria
2 Department of Anatomy, Baze University, Abuja FCT, Nigeria
Eur. J. Anat.
ISSN 2340-311X (Online)