The glenoid cavity is a sliced egg-shaped joint surface located on the lateral margin of the scapula to form the shoulder joint. Recognition of variations in shape and dimensions of the glenoid cavity is important for a better comprehension of joint-associated diseases, especially in total shoulder arthroplasty procedures. The aim of this study was to perform morphometric measurements on the glenoid cavity. Glenoid cavities of 391 individuals (197 males [50.4%], 194 females [49.6%]) were reviewed by using Multi-detector Computed Tomography. The maximum length and maximum width of glenoid cavities, as well as the width, depth and circumference at the notch level were measured, and the index value was calculated. The glenoid cavity shapes were typed as pear, inverted comma and oval type. Furthermore, the metric values that provide the best differentiation between genders were identified through ROC analysis.
The pear glenoid cavity type was detected in 53.2%, inverted comma type was detected in 28.4%, and oval type was detected in 18.4% of cases. In all of our morphometric measurements, male values were higher than female values, and there was significant difference between them. Results of ROC analysis revealed significant measurements for the maximum length and maximum width measurements of the glenoid for gender determination. Morphometric information of the glenoid cavity can be useful in order to increase clinical success in case of Bankart lesion, rotator cuff disease, and osteochondral defect. Recognition of different shapes and dimensions of the glenoid cavity is essential for the design of the glenoid component, especially for total shoulder arthroplasty procedure. We believe that the data obtained in our study would be useful for prosthesis designers and orthopaedic surgeons.