Cotton seed extract contains gossypol, actives component. The gossypol toxicity has been documented to possess most importantly anti-infertility properties. This study investigates the effects of cotton seed extracts on liver tissues and the protective effects of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) extract on gossypol toxicity.
A total of thirty-five (35) adult female rats were used for this study and were grouped into seven (7) groups (n = 5). Group A – 0.1ml of phosphate buffer solution; Group B – 40mg/kg of Phoenix dactylifera only; Group C – 15 mg/kg gossypol; Group D – 30mg/kg of gossypol; Group E – 15 mg/kg gossypol + 40 mg/kg Phoenix dactylifera; Group F – 15 mg/kg Vitamin E; Group G – 15 mg/kg gossypol + 15 mg/kg vitamin E. After final administration of experimental gossypol, and Phoenix dactylifera extract, the animals were euthanized by cervical dislocation and the liver tissue was excised. The left lobe of the liver from each rat was fixed in Bouin’s fluid for routine histological haematoxylin & eosin (H/E) and immunohistochemical (CK7) stains, while the right liver lobe was homogenized in 5% sucrose solution for enzyme assay using antioxidant and enzymes of carbohydrates metabolism.
Histological observations showed loss of hepatic sinusoids following derangement of horizontally placed hepatic plates; degeneration of hepatocytes and the reduced expression of cell proliferation as indicated by CK-7 demonstration in cotton-seed-extract-treated animals when reference to the Phoenix dactylifera treated groups and the control animals with the characteristic features of hepatic architecture. Evidence obtained in the enzymes of antioxidant using SOD and GH showed significant reduction in the enzymes’ activities, with associated increase in lipid peroxidation among the cotton-seed-extract-treated animals. Phoenix dactylifera extract and the treatment with vitamin E preserved the antioxidant enzyme integrity and maintained the carbohydrates metabolism measured by the D-6-PD and the LH level.
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) extracts and treatment with vitamin E maintained hepatic integrity and preserved the histological appearances and the enzymes of carbohydrates metabolism and antioxidant properties against cotton seed (gossypol) toxicity.