This study aimed to determine, using a retrospective cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) assessment and a logistic regression analysis, which variations of the maxillary structures of interest in surgical, forensic, and anthropological practices might be linked to the sex trait in a representative sample of Colombian adults with different age and alveolar process status categories. A total of 208 CBCT scans obtained from 83 males and 125 females were evaluated. The protocol included the assessment of 40 parameters, of which 25 were bilateral and 15 were unique. The strength of association between the study variables and the sex of the individuals was examined individually and adjusted for confounding using univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression models. Although the age and alveolar process status had a confounding influence on the results, posterior maxillary region-related variables including maxillary sinus, infraorbital foramen, and greater palatine canal dimensions, but also anterior maxilla/upper middle line-related variables comprising nasopalatine canal length, anterior buccal bone thickness, and incisive foramen diameter, revealed higher values in males and remained strongly and independently associated with the male sex after adjusting for confounders. It was concluded that the maxillary bone can present several morphological variations, as well as dimensional differences that may be strongly liaised to sex, but are independent of age, side, and the state of the alveolar process of the population observed. Even so, both aging and alveolar process status should be considered when applying the anatomical variation data to the needs of the particular case.
Logistic regression analysis of sex-related morphological and dimensional variations of maxillary bone: a cone-beam computed tomography-based retrospective study
Santiago Palacio-Gutiérrez1, Sara Morales-Galeano1, Jorge L. Obando-Castillo2, Clara I. Saldarriaga-Naranjo3, Sergio I. Tobón-Arroyave1
1 Graduate Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Program, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia
2 Department of Radiology, Cooperative University of Colombia, San Juan de Pasto, Colombia
3 Department of Radiology, CES University and RADEX 3D Specialized Radiology Center. Medellín, Colombia