The anti-fertility effect of formaldehyde was investigated on the testicular cytoarchitecture and semen of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to formaldehyde by inhalation. Thirty adult male rats were randomly selected into three (3) groups of ten (10) rats each. The treatment group 2 and group 3 were exposed to 40% stock concentration of formaldehyde for 1 min/m2 and 2 min/m2 respectively daily for four (4) weeks of experimental period. The control group (group 1) was allowed free access to natural air throughout the experimental period. Testis was dissected out following cervical dislocation and fixed in Bouins fluid for histological processing. Caudal Epididymis was also dissected out and suspended in 1ml of Hams F- 10 solution for estimation of sperm concentration and motility.
Semen analysis revealed a significant reduction in sperm concentration and sperm motility in the treated groups. Histological alterations in the seminiferous tubule and degeneration of spermatogenic cells were observed in the treated groups compared with the control. Reduction in sperm concentration and motility and histological alteration of the testes in the treated rats showed that formaldehyde might have toxicity on the reproductive organ.