Morphine (MO), a psychoactive member of opium family, causes free radicals’ accumulation in cells. Sumach (SU) is a medicinal plant with antioxidative activities. This study was designed to assess the probable ameliorative effects and alteration of apoptotic genes expression after SU extract administration on testopathy caused by chronic MO contamination. Sixty-four male rats were divided into 8 groups: 1, normal; 2, MO; 3, 200 mg/kg SU; 4, 400 mg/kg SU; 5, 800 mg/kg SU; 6, MO + 200 mg/kg SU; 7, MO + 400 mg/kg SU; and 8. MO + 800 mg/kg SU. All intraperitoneal injections of MO (10 mg/kg) were applied on the first day of the experiment, and SU extract was also treated orally (through a nasogastric tube) on the other 2-28 days. Apoptotic genes expression (P53, Bcl2 and caspase-3) and inflammatory cytokines were measured by Real-Time PCR and ELISA techniques, respectively. Also, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and male reproductive parameters were detected quantitatively. In MO group, significant detrimental changes of testes (including all investigated parameters) were detected in comparison with the normal group (P ˂ 0.01), but genes expression of P53 and caspase-3 and inflammatory cytokine showed a significant incremental trend. In SU (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) and SU (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) + MO treated groups, all values were accelerated significantly in comparison with MO group (P ˂ 0.01), but genes expression of P53 and caspase-3, along with inflammatory cytokine indices, were down-regulated. Totally, therapeutic effects of SU extract were approved biochemically and histologically to scavenge MO impacts.
Applications of Sumach extract in reduction of male reproductive parameters damages following morphine administration through down-regulated apoptotic genes, antioxidants regulation, and inflammatory markers suppression
Ahmad Shabanizadeh1, Shiva Roshankhah2, Amir Abdolmaleki2, Mohammad Reza Salahshoor2
1 Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Immunology of Infectious Diseases Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
2 Department of Anatomical Sciences, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran