European Journal of Anatomy

Official Journal of The Spanish Society of Anatomy
Cover Volume 21 - Number 1
Eur J Anat, 21 (1): 19-30 (2017)

Protective and curative role of Citrus sinensis peel on cadmium-induced testicular and spermatic damage: a morphometric and immunohistochemical evaluation using monoclonal antibodies against Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen

Gabriel Akunna1, Emmanuel Obikili2, Emeka Anyanwu2, Emmanuel Esom2

1Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Federal University Ndufu Alike Ikwo, Ebonyi State, 2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Enugu State

ABSTRACT This study examined the protective and curative effects of aqueous zest extract of Citrus sinensis on Cadmium-induced testicular tumor in animal models. Twenty four male Wistar rats (10 to 12 weeks old) weighing 165-275 g were divided into group A (treated orally with 2.5 ml/kg body weight/daily of normal saline), Group B (treated intraperitoneally with a single dose of 5mg/kg of cadmium), group C (Treated intraperitoneally with 5 mg/kg of cadmium before 10 mg/kg aqueous zest extract of Citrus sinensis orally), group D (treated with 5mg/kg of cadmium before 40 mg/kg extract), group E (treated with 10 mg/kg extract before 5 mg/kg of cadmium) and group F (treated with 40 mg/kg extract before 5mg/kg of cadmium). The procedure lasted for 8 weeks. Group B rats showed a significant (p< 0.05) decrease in testis weight, testis volume, sperm count (p > 0.001), sperm motility (p > 0.001), abnormal sperm morphology (p<0.001) and a significant decrease in tubular diameter, length (p <0.05), cross sectional area, width, germinal epithelia height, numerical density (p <0.01), perimeter, number (p < 0.001) and a significant increase in tubular lumen of the seminiferous tubules. Rats that were treated with cadmium without pre-treatment or post-treatment with extract showed marked degeneration and atrophied seminiferous tubules with absence of late stage germ cells. There was also a reduction in proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) materials and Ki67 positive cells in these rats. Interestingly, all these parameters were however attenuated in the groups that were pre-treated and post-treated with the extract.Taken together therefore, it was concluded that aqueous zest extract of Citrus sinensis have protective and curative roles in the abatement of cadmium-induced testicular tumor and that these effects might be as a result of the antioxidant and free radical scavenging potentials of these neutraceuticals.

Keywords: Citrus sinensis ?? Cadmium ?? Testes ?? Antioxidants ?? Ki-67 ?? PCNA

European Journal of anatomy
ISSN 2340-311X (Online)