Necrotizing enterocolitis (NE) is a medical condition mediated by oxidative stress to the small intestine. Fish oil is a natural component rich in healthy fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids with anti-inflammatory anti-apoptotic role. Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates many oxidative diseases such as diabetes mellitus and neurodegeneration, associated by the release of many caspase subtypes that promotes cellular apoptosis. Mitochondrial stress also causes the release of many caspase variants together with mitochondrial Deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA). The aim of the present study is to appraise the role mediated by both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) &mitochondria stress in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis and to explore the therapeutic effects of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Ninety rats’ pups were used (one day old), divided into three groups, (1) C-group: control group; (2) NE-group: necrotizing enterocolitis group, and (3) NE-FO-group: necrotizing enterocolitis pre-fed with fish oil group. At day 11, 12 and 13 ten pups from each group were sacrificed for intestinal sample collection. Histological examinations, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western and Southern blot were performed. NE group showed severe histopathological changes. NE-FO group showed regain of most of normal histopathological feature. Levels of TNF-α and IL-6 increased markedly in NE group if compared to NE-FO group. Caspase 12 and caspase 9 levels in NE group were higher than inNE-FO group. The levels of GRB-78 and mtDNA were high in NE-FO group if compared to control group, but lower than levels of NE group. In conclusion, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid can protect against neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway demonstrated to mediate necrotizingenterocolitis pathological changes. Thus, fish oil offers a natural option to prevent and treat the clinical manifestation of NE.
Ahmed S. Ahmed
Anatomy and Embryology Department, College of Medicine, Tanta University. Tanta 31511, Egypt
Eur. J. Anat.