The dentate gyrus is a sensitive region of the brain for learning and memory, and is thus vulnerable to post-ischemic changes. So, this work aimed to study the histological changes in the dentate gyrus after right common carotid artery occlusion/reperfusion. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first attempt to demonstrate the beneficial protective role of red beetroot supplementation. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided randomly into: Group I, consisting of 18 rats and were subdivided into control, red beetroot extract (RBE), and sham; Group II, right common carotid artery occlusion (RCCAO) group (n = 12). This group had unilateral common carotid artery occlusion on the right side for 90 minutes followed by reperfusion for one week. Group III: RCCAO+RBE group (n = 12): received RBE (500 mg/kg/day/oral) for 22 days, and on day 15 were subjected to RCCAO then reperfusion for one week. At the end of the experiment, the dentate gyrus sections were subjected to histological, immunohistochemical, and morphometric analyses for the expression of Caspase-3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Besides, tissue nitric oxide, superoxide dismutase, and malonaldehyde levels were measured. Results: RBE ameliorates the ischemic induced dentate gyrus neurodegenerative changes. The number of granular cells and their Nissl’s granules content were significantly increased. This study clarified that red beetroot extract exerted its effects via regulating oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Besides, this study detected that the beneficial effect of RBE was also mediated by modulating HSP70 expression and the astroglial response to the injury. Conclusion: Red beetroot extract showed an anti-ischemic potential providing new insight into its significance as a neuroprotective agent.
Samah Elsayed1, Mostafa El-Habeby1, Neveen El-Sherif1, Marwa Al-Gholam1
Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt
Eur. J. Anat.
ISSN 2340-311X (Online)