European Journal of Anatomy

Official Journal of The Spanish Society of Anatomy
Cover Volume 22 - Number 1
Eur J Anat, 22 (1): 27-35 (2018)

Topographic anatomy of mandibular foramen in different age groups using panoramic radiographs

Swati Kapoor1, Amneet Sandhu2, Anjali Singla3, Sumeet Sandhu2

1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Bhojia Dental College & Hospital, Baddi, India, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Amritsar, India, 3Department of Anatomy, Bhojia dental college & Hospital, Baddi, India

ABSTRACT The purpose of this investigation was to document the most common position of the mandibular foramen and to compare its position in three different age groups, gender and sides on panoramic radiographs. The knowledge regarding the location of mandibular foramen is essential for administering the inferior alveolar nerve block, peripheral neurectomy and for performing osteotomy cuts with low inferior alveolar nerve morbidity. Two hundred mandibular foramina were studied on panoramic radiographs of one hundred patients (51 female and 49 male) with a mean age of 20.1510.7 years. The patients were grouped into three age groups (≤13, 14-25, >25 years). Various measurements for the position of mandibular foramen were performed in horizontal and vertical dimensions using different landmarks and reference points. The ratios of horizontal and vertical dimensions were compared within three different age groups, gender and side. The majority of mandibular foramina were in the ratio range of 0.31-0.40 in all the three age groups horizontally and vertically with a significant difference in patients within the age group of ≤ 13 years from the other two age groups. The study showed that the mandibular foramen was located in the middle third of the ramus and the location of the mandibular foramen maintained bilateral symmetry in all the cases. The study indicated that the location of the mandibular foramen is variable. However, the superior and posterior fifths are found to be the safer zones. So, the positional changes of mandibular foramen with age are imperative, as in children they may be occasionally found in inferior third and therefore preoperative knowledge of the exact position of the mandibular foramen may guide the surgeon to develop a safe and accurate surgical technique avoiding any violation of the neurovascular bundle.

Keywords: Horizontal ratio Mandibular foramen Panoramic radiographs Vertical ratio

European Journal of anatomy
ISSN 2340-311X (Online)