European Journal of Anatomy

Official Journal of The Spanish Society of Anatomy
Cover Volume 18 - Number 3
Eur J Anat, 18 (3): 165-169 (2014)

Placental changes associated with maternal anaemia

Sharmistha Biswas1, Rudradev Meyur2, Anjan Adhikari2, Koushik Bose3 and Panchanan Kundu4

1N.R.S. Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, 2R.G.Kar Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, 3Burdwan Medical College, Burdwan, West Bengal, India and 4Bankura Sammilani Medical College, Bankura, West Bengal, India

ABSTRACT The present study aimed to assess the morphological and histological changes of placentas associated with maternal anaemia (mothers with Hb level <11 g/dl). The study was conducted in Bankura Sammilani Medical College, West Bengal, India for a period of six months. Placentas collected from cases of maternal anaemia (Hb < 11 g/dl) were forty (40) and those collected from control mothers were thirty (30). All the deliveries were at full term (37-42 weeks) and in the antenatal periods were without any complications or diseases. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses of the placentas were done and these findings were compared. Statistical analysis was performed by using t-test for comparing the mean values of fetal weights, placental weights, placental indices and placental volumes of the maternal anaemia group with those of control group. It was observed that the mean fetal weight of pregnancy with anaemia group was less than those of the control group. The mean placental weight and mean placental volume in pregnancy with the anaemia group were more than the control group. Also, the mean placental index of the maternal anaemia group was higher than that of the control group. Light microscopy revealed increased fibrin deposition, increased syncytial knotting, more avascular villi with incomplete trophoblastic lining, stromal fibrosis, intervillous haemorrhage and cytotrophoblastic cell proliferation in placentas of anaemic mothers as compared to those of the controls. We concluded that maternal anaemia resulted into bigger, heavier placentas and smaller fetuses, whereas placental morphological changes showed signs of chronic hypoxia and placental insufficiency.

Keywords: Maternal anaemia, Placental weight, Fetal weight, Histology

European Journal of anatomy
ISSN 2340-311X (Online)