European Journal of Anatomy

Official Journal of The Spanish Society of Anatomy
/> Cover Volume 17 - Number 3
Eur J Anat, 17 (3): 166-175 (2013)

Congenital anomalies in North Western Indian population a fetal autopsy study

Kanchan Kapoor1, Kashish Singh1, Anshu Sharma1, Balbir Singh1, Anju Huria2 and Suman Kochhar3

1Department of Anatomy, GMCH, Chandigarh, India, 2Department of Obst. and Gynae, GMCH, Chandigarh, India and 3Department of Radiodiagnosis, GMCH, Chandigarh, India

ABSTRACT Better knowledge of unexpected fetal loss is the promise for better parental counseling and for prevention of recurrences. Fetal autopsy can provide a clue to ascertain cause of death in these cases. Variations in the incidence can be attributed to multiple factors. The present study was carried out to help us to develop a database concerning number of autopsies, incidence and types of congenital malformations (CMF) in the North-Western Indian population. The period of study was from January 2010 to November 2011. Autopsy was carried out on 150 fetuses following guidelines provided by a fetal autopsy protocol. Prior to autopsy, prenatal investigations such as ultrasound and radiographs were procured; a brief maternal and family history was noted. Out of a total of 150 autopsies, 87(58%) were induced abortions and 63(42%) spontaneous abortions. In total, the incidence of CMF was 104(69%) of fetal autopsies. The types of CMF were classified as central nervous system defects (CNS) in 49 (33%), gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders in 48 (32%), musuculoskeletal (MS) disorders in 31 (21%), genito-urinary (GU) in 25 (17%), and genetic disorders in 12 (8%). Multiple anomalies were present in 40 (27%) fetuses. Anencephaly (meroencephaly) turned out to be the most prevalent anomaly (29%). A few cases showed the occurrence of some uncommon syndromes. Major CMFs manifested very early in intra-uterine life, and could lead to termination of pregnancy (spontaneous or induced) in the 2nd trimester of gestation. Hence the presence of any CMF at the time of birth cannot provide the total percentage of CMF occurring in a given population. The above findings are discussed in the light of the available literature.

Keywords: Fetal, Autopsy, Congenital, Major anomalies, Malformations, Fetus, Abortion

European Journal of anatomy
ISSN 2340-311X (Online)