TY - JOUR A1 - , T1 - Horseshoe kidney: is there still a debate? JO - Eur. J. Anat. SN - 1136-4890 Y1 - 2019 VL - 23 SP - 131 EP - 135 UR - http://www.eurjanat.com/web/paper.php?id=180384ol KW - Human gross anatomy Renal embryology Horseshoe kidney Arterial supply Venous drainage N2 - Horseshoe kidneys (HSK) represent an interesting surprise during anatomical dissections directed towards teaching of the urinary system. Clinically, the HSK limits access into the retroperitoneal space due to its location, orientation, and positioning of the ureters. In addition, its highly variable arterial and venous patterns provide great difficulties for surgeons during aortic aneurysm correction, and more recently, HSK transplantation. This case is a morphological study of a noticeably different HSK from the perspective of location, arterial blood supply, and venous drainage, which is further solidified by an embryological review. The debate is opened for further exploration into the theories associated with HSK ascent, its vasculature patterns, and the need for precise diagnostic imaging to serve preoperative planning. ER -